R Dataset / Package mediation / framing


On this R-data statistics page, you will find information about the framing data set which pertains to Brader, Valentino and Suhay (2008) Framing Experiment Data. The framing data set is found in the mediation R package. You can load the framing data set in R by issuing the following command at the console data("framing"). This will load the data into a variable called framing. If R says the framing data set is not found, you can try installing the package by issuing this command install.packages("mediation") and then attempt to reload the data. If you need to download R, you can go to the R project website. You can download a CSV (comma separated values) version of the framing R data set. The size of this file is about 23,088 bytes.

Brader, Valentino and Suhay (2008) Framing Experiment Data


The framing data contains 265 rows and 15 columns of data from a framing experiment conducted by Brader, Valentino and Suhay (2008).




A data frame containing the following variables:


A four-point scale measuring subjects' attitudes toward increased immigration. Larger values indicate more negative attitudes.


A four-point scale indicating whether subjects favor or oppose a law making English the official language of the U.S.


Whether subjects requested sending an anti-immigration message to Congress on their behalf.


Whether subjects wanted to receive information from anti-immigration organizations.


1st treatment; whether the news story is framed positively or negatively.


2nd treatment; whether the news story features a Latino or European immigrant.


Four level measure recording joint treatment status of tone and eth.


Product of the two treatment variables. In the original study the authors only find this cell to be significant.


Measure of subjects' negative feeling during the experiment. A numeric scale ranging between 3 and 12 where 3 indicates the most negative feeling.


A four-point scale measuring subjects' anxiety about increased immigration.


Subjects' perceived harm caused by increased immigration. A numeric scale between 2 and 8.


Subjects' age.


Subjects' highest educational attainments.


Subjects' gender.


Subjects' income, measured as a 19-point scale.


Brader, T., Valentino, N. and Suhay, E. (2008). What triggers public opposition to immigration? Anxiety, group cues, and immigration threat. American Journal of Political Science 52, 4, 959–978.


Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

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Attachment Size
dataset-56425.csv 22.55 KB
Dataset License
GNU General Public License v2.0
Documentation License
GNU General Public License v2.0

This documentation is licensed under GPLv3 or later.