R Dataset / Package MASS / galaxies


On this R-data statistics page, you will find information about the galaxies data set which pertains to Velocities for 82 Galaxies. The galaxies data set is found in the MASS R package. You can load the galaxies data set in R by issuing the following command at the console data("galaxies"). This will load the data into a variable called galaxies. If R says the galaxies data set is not found, you can try installing the package by issuing this command install.packages("MASS") and then attempt to reload the data. If you need to download R, you can go to the R project website. You can download a CSV (comma separated values) version of the galaxies R data set. The size of this file is about 491 bytes.

Velocities for 82 Galaxies


A numeric vector of velocities in km/sec of 82 galaxies from 6 well-separated conic sections of an unfilled survey of the Corona Borealis region. Multimodality in such surveys is evidence for voids and superclusters in the far universe.




There is an 83rd measurement of 5607 km/sec in the Postman et al. paper which is omitted in Roeder (1990) and from the dataset here.

There is also a typo: this dataset has 78th observation 26690 which should be 26960.


Roeder, K. (1990) Density estimation with confidence sets exemplified by superclusters and voids in galaxies. Journal of the American Statistical Association 85, 617–624.

Postman, M., Huchra, J. P. and Geller, M. J. (1986) Probes of large-scale structures in the Corona Borealis region. Astronomical Journal 92, 1238–1247.


Venables, W. N. and Ripley, B. D. (2002) Modern Applied Statistics with S. Fourth edition. Springer.


gal <- galaxies/1000
c(width.SJ(gal, method = "dpi"), width.SJ(gal))
plot(x = c(0, 40), y = c(0, 0.3), type = "n", bty = "l",
     xlab = "velocity of galaxy (1000km/s)", ylab = "density")
lines(density(gal, width = 3.25, n = 200), lty = 1)
lines(density(gal, width = 2.56, n = 200), lty = 3)

Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

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Attachment Size
dataset-18534.csv 491 bytes
Dataset License
GNU General Public License v2.0
Documentation License
GNU General Public License v2.0

This documentation is licensed under GPLv3 or later.