R Dataset / Package HSAUR / water


On this R-data statistics page, you will find information about the water data set which pertains to Mortality and Water Hardness . The water data set is found in the HSAUR R package. You can load the water data set in R by issuing the following command at the console data("water"). This will load the data into a variable called water. If R says the water data set is not found, you can try installing the package by issuing this command install.packages("HSAUR") and then attempt to reload the data. If you need to download R, you can go to the R project website. You can download a CSV (comma separated values) version of the water R data set. The size of this file is about 1,701 bytes.

Mortality and Water Hardness


The mortality and drinking water hardness for 61 cities in England and Wales.




A data frame with 61 observations on the following 4 variables.


a factor with levels North and South indicating whether the town is as north as Derby.


the name of the town.


averaged annual mortality per 100.000 male inhabitants.


calcium concentration (in parts per million).


The data were collected in an investigation of environmental causes of disease. They show the annual mortality per 100,000 for males, averaged over the years 1958-1964, and the calcium concentration (in parts per million) in the drinking water for 61 large towns in England and Wales. The higher the calcium concentration, the harder the water. Towns at least as far north as Derby are identified in the table. Here there are several questions that might be of interest including, are mortality and water hardness related, and do either or both variables differ between northern and southern towns?


D. J. Hand, F. Daly, A. D. Lunn, K. J. McConway and E. Ostrowski (1994). A Handbook of Small Datasets, Chapman and Hall/CRC, London.


  data("water", package = "HSAUR")
  plot(mortality ~ hardness, data = water, 
       col = as.numeric(water$location))

Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

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Attachment Size
dataset-10755.csv 1.66 KB
Dataset License
GNU General Public License v2.0
Documentation License
GNU General Public License v2.0

This documentation is licensed under GPLv3 or later.