On this Picostat.com statistics page, you will find information about the Bowley data set which pertains to Bowley's data on values of British and Irish trade, 1855-1899. The Bowley data set is found in the HistData R package. You can load the Bowley data set in R by issuing the following command at the console data("Bowley"). This will load the data into a variable called Bowley. If R says the Bowley data set is not found, you can try installing the package by issuing this command install.packages("HistData") and then attempt to reload the data. If you need to download R, you can go to the R project website. You can download a CSV (comma separated values) version of the Bowley R data set. The size of this file is about 497 bytes.
Bowley's data on values of British and Irish trade, 1855-1899
In one of the first statistical textbooks, Arthur Bowley (1901)
used these data to illustrate an arithmetic and graphical analysis
of time-series data using the total value of British and Irish
exports from 1855-1899. He presented a line graph of the time-series
data, supplemented by overlaid line graphs of 3-, 5- and 10-year moving
averages. His goal was to show that while the initial series
showed wide variability, moving averages made the series progressively
A data frame with 45 observations on the following 2 variables.
Year, from 1855-1899
total value of British and Irish exports (millions of Pounds)
Bowley, A. L. (1901). Elements of Statistics. London: P. S. King and Son,
Digitized from Bowley's graph.
data(Bowley)# plot the data
with(Bowley,plot(Year, Value, type='b',
ylab="Value of British and Irish Exports",
main="Bowley's example of the method of smoothing curves"))# find moving averages-- use center alignment (requires width=ODD)
mav3<-running(Bowley$Value, width=3, align="center")
mav5<-running(Bowley$Value, width=5, align="center")
mav9<-running(Bowley$Value, width=9, align="center")
lines(Bowley$Year[2:44], mav3, col='blue', lty=2)
lines(Bowley$Year[3:43], mav5, col='green3', lty=3)
lines(Bowley$Year[5:41], mav9, col='brown', lty=4)# add lowess smooth
lines(lowess(Bowley), col='red', lwd=2)require(ggplot2, warn.conflicts=FALSE)
Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.